If you see scale in your kettle, that means you've got a problem. If water enters a private house through a well or groundwater well after mixing with clay or limestone, it will most likely be hard.
Water softening means that hardness salts are removed.
Water in the filter passes through a semipermeable membrane that cuts off all impurities larger than 0.0005 microns: hardness salts, bacteria, viruses and other contaminants.
This cleaning and softening process is the most extensive among those described above, but it takes a lot of time and therefore pure water needs to be collected in a large storage tank.
Ion exchange filters are really helpful in water softening.
For example, WaterBoss softeners remove hardness salts up to 24 mg/l, and WaterMax — up to 38 mg/l. Moreover, WaterBoss filters remove iron and manganese from water. WaterMax also handles nitrates and high molecular weight organic compounds. Compared to other softeners, these systems remove impurities more thoroughly and use significantly less water and salt for resin recovery.
Probably, your water tastes bitter due to the high content of hardness salts.
To eliminate bad taste, use water softeners and reverse osmosis systems. Use pre-filters to remove sand. For example, you can install a pre-filter AQUAPHOR Gross. It removes sand, rust, silt and other impurities up to 10 microns. Test your water and ask an expert to help you choose the right solution.
Lime actually consists of calcium and magnesium salts. They can be removed with ion exchange softeners or reverse osmosis systems.
Drinking water machines effectively remove lime from your drinking water — for example Aquaphor DWM-101S, which removes excess calcium and magnesium salts, as well as iron, bacteria, viruses, heavy metals, pesticides and organic compounds. After passing through this filter, the mineral balance of water is restored, and now it can be used for preparing baby food.